Multiplex peptide-MHC tetramer staining using mass cytometry for deep analysis of the influenza-specific T-cell response in mice
Antigen-specific T cells play a crucial role for the host protective immunity against viruses and other diseases. The use of mass cytometry together with a combinatorial multiplex tetramer staining has successfully been applied for probing and characterization of multiple antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in human blood samples. The present study shows that this approach can also be used to rapidly assess the magnitude of influenza-specific CD8+ T cell epitope dominance across lymph nodes and lungs in a murine model of a highly pathological influenza infection. Moreover, we show feasibility of extending this approach to include concurrent identification of virus-specific CD4+ T cells. By using a double coding approach, we probed for five influenza-specific MHCI-peptide complexes as well as one influenza-specific MHCII-peptide complex in the presence of irrelevant control peptides and show that this approach is capable of tracking antigen-specific T cells across individual lymph nodes and lungs. The simultaneous staining with 26 surface maker molecules further facilitated an in-depth characterization of T cells reacting with influenza epitopes and revealed tissue specific phenotypic differences between CD4+ T cells targeting the same pathogenic epitope. In conclusion, this approach provides the possibility for a rapid and comprehensive analysis of antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in different disease settings that might be advantageous for subsequent vaccine formulation strategies.
Human Innate Lymphoid Cell Subsets Possess Tissue-Type Based Heterogeneity in Phenotype and Frequency
Animal models have highlighted the importance of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in multiple immune responses. However, technical limitations have hampered adequate characterization of ILCs in humans. Here, we used mass cytometry including a broad range of surface markers and transcription factors to accurately identify and profile ILCs across healthy and inflamed tissue types. High dimensional analysis allowed for clear phenotypic delineation of ILC2 and ILC3 subsets. We were not able to detect ILC1 cells in any of the tissues assessed, however, we identified intra-epithelial (ie)ILC1-like cells that represent a broader category of NK cells in mucosal and non-mucosal pathological tissues. In addition, we have revealed the expression of phenotypic molecules that have not been previously described for ILCs. Our analysis shows that human ILCs are highly heterogeneous cell types between individuals and tissues. It also provides a global, comprehensive, and detailed description of ILC heterogeneity in humans across patients and tissues.
Checkpoint blockade immunotherapy reshapes the high-dimensional phenotypic heterogeneity of murine intratumoural neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells
The analysis of neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells in tumour-bearing individuals is challenging due to the small pool of tumour antigen-specific T cells. Here we show that mass cytometry with multiplex combinatorial tetramer staining can identify and characterize neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells in mice bearing T3 methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas that are susceptible to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Among 81 candidate antigens tested, we identify T cells restricted to two known neoantigens simultaneously in tumours, spleens and lymph nodes in tumour-bearing mice. High-dimensional phenotypic profiling reveals that antigen-specific, tumour-infiltrating T cells are highly heterogeneous. We further show that neoantigen-specific T cells display a different phenotypic profile in mice treated with anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1 immunotherapy, whereas their peripheral counterparts are not affected by the treatments. Our results provide insights into the nature of neoantigen-specific T cells and the effects of checkpoint blockade immunotherapy.
A High-Dimensional Atlas of Human T Cell Diversity Reveals Tissue-Specific Trafficking and Cytokine Signatures.
Depending on the tissue microenvironment, T cells can differentiate into highly diverse subsets expressing unique trafficking receptors and cytokines. Studies of human lymphocytes have primarily focused on a limited number of parameters in blood, representing an incomplete view of the human immune system. Here, we have utilized mass cytometry to simultaneously analyze T cell trafficking and functional markers across eight different human tissues, including blood, lymphoid, and non-lymphoid tissues. These data have revealed that combinatorial expression of trafficking receptors and cytokines better defines tissue specificity. Notably, we identified numerous T helper cell subsets with overlapping cytokine expression, but only specific cytokine combinations are secreted regardless of tissue type. This indicates that T cell lineages defined in mouse models cannot be clearly distinguished in humans. Overall, our data uncover a plethora of tissue immune signatures and provide a systemic map of how T cell phenotypes are altered throughout the human body.
Mass cytometry: blessed with the curse of dimensionality
Immunologists are being compelled to develop new high-dimensional perspectives of cellular heterogeneity and to determine which applications best exploit the power of mass cytometry and associated multiplex approaches.